Norgate et al. (2010) researched available copper operations data that considered the energy intensity of a site for operations in Australia, Canada and Chile.1
The research determined that across industry there was generally a lack of data available that segregated energy intensity into the various stages within an operation in favour of reporting a single energy intensity across the whole operation. The study determined that haulage activity using diesel trucks makes up around 14 percent of whole of site CO2-eq emissions per tonne of copper concentrate with control parameters of copper ore grade being 1.8 percent, copper concentrate grade at 27.3 percent copper, and a copper recovery of 93.7 percent. This study highlights that haulage is a key operational activity that would benefit from a whole of industry effort to benchmark data, share and adopt practices and innovation to achieve a zero emission mining outcome.